Accredited Independent Entity (AIE)
An entity accredited by the JISC, which is responsible for the determination of whether a project and the ensuing reductions of anthropogenic emissions by sources or enhancements of anthropogenic removals by sinks meet the relevant requirements of Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol and the JI guidelines.
Accuracy defines the closeness in agreement between the result of a measurement and the true value of the particular quantity (or an internationally accepted empirically determined reference value using traceable calibration materials and standard methods), taking into account both, random and systematic factors.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, certificates from JI and the CDM (see explanations below) will be awarded only to Project-based activities where emissions reductions are “additional to those that otherwise would occur”. The issue has to be elaborated further by the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, and on the basis of practical experiences.
Afforestation and Reforestation (A/R) Projects
Afforestation and Reforestation (A/R) projects imply to establish forest on land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years (afforestations) or non-forested land (reforestation) through planting, seeding and/or the promotion of natural seed sources.
Annex B Countries
Annex B countries are the 39 emissions-capped countries listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol.
Annex I Countries
The set of 36 signatory countries of the UNFCCC that in 2000 agreed to cut their greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels, including countries that were part of the OECD in 1990, economies in transition, Central and Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation and that are not listed in Annex I of the UNFCCC. Belarus and Turkey are listed in Annex I of the UNFCCC but not in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol; Croatia, Liechtenstein, Monaco and Slovenia are listed in Annex B but not in Annex I. In practice, however, Annex I of the UNFCCC and Annex B of the Kyoto protocol are often used interchangeably.
Annual Emissions Report (AER)
The annual report made annually by installations operating under EUETS reporting on their CO2 emissions and which must then be subject to verification and submitted to the e-sipo by March 31 of the subsequent year.
Attribution of emissions permits or allowances among greenhouse gas emitters to establish an emission trading market. The division of permits/allowances can be done through grandfathering method or benchmarking and they can be distributed for free or by auctioning.
Assigned Amount (AA) and Assigned Amount Units (AAUs)
The assigned amount is the total amount of greenhouse gas that each Annex B country is allowed to emit during the first commitment period (see explanation below) of the Kyoto protocol. Na Assigned Amount Unit (AAU) is a tradable unit of 1 tCO2e.